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How Music
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CHAPTER 6:
How Chords and Chord Progressions
REALLY Work
  
6.7 Inside the Circular Harmonic Scale

 
PAGE INDEX
  

6.7.1 The Problem of Harmonic Ambiguity

6.7.2 Dissonance to the Rescue!

6.7.3 The Dominator: Why the V7 Chord Controls Harmony

6.7.4 Last Tweaks of the Harmonic Scale

6.7.5 The Harmonic Scale: Final (“Default”) Version

6.7.6 Two Different Animals: Comparing the Circle of Fifths with the Harmonic Scale

6.7.7 Circle of Fifths: The Mistake of Treating Keys as “Chords”

6.7.8 Comparing Melodic Scales with Harmonic Scales

 

~ • ~ • ~ • ~


6.7.1

THE PROBLEM OF HARMONIC AMBIGUITY


When you play two major chords a fifth progression apart, an ambiguity arises. Here’s a little experiment to try. Play this progression of major chords:


C – G – C – pause – G – C – G – pause – G – C – G


     You’re playing exactly the same two chords. But which key are you in, C major or G major?


     The progression appears to start out in the key of C major, then seems to change to G major. Or does it? You can’t really be sure.


     The problem is that all major triads are consonances. So your poor brain has trouble identifying which of the two chords is the tonic chord.


     Music depends for its vitality on establishing tonality, then disturbing it, then recovering it. Just like drama. If it’s done right, music is drama. You start out in some sort of “normal” situation. Then someone or something comes along to upset things—which makes the situation dramatically interesting.


     As every dramatist knows, you cannot wreak delicious havoc upon an established order unless you first establish the order upon which you can wreak the delicious havoc.


     In music, you first have to establish order—tonality—unambiguously before you can disturb it. If you don’t establish tonality, your brain has no context in which to process subsequent sonic information.


     If you just play random chords, the music sounds just as unpalatable as a tune sounds if it’s based on a random scale. (Recall the imaginary chalk marks on the cello fingerboard.)


     Chords and scales only sound coherent if they’re organized in accordance with the simple frequency ratios that your brain has evolved to comprehend.


     In the above example, C – G – C – pause – etc., tonality is not established. The C major chord could be the I chord if the key is C. Or it could be the IV chord if the key is G. And the G major chord could be the I chord if the key is G. Or it could be the V chord if the key is C.


     Ambiguity prevails.



6.7.2

DISSONANCE TO THE RESCUE!


Good music works like good story-telling. There’s conflict, suspense, intrigue. That’s the function of dissonant harmony. As long as there’s dissonance, you don’t feel a sense of finality or resolution. So the brain expects more musical story-telling and an eventual release from suspense.


     Resolution only comes with a return to scale degree 1, the tonic note (the centre of gravity) and the simple non-dissonant major triad. This usually happens periodically throughout the song, not only once at the end.


     But if it happens too much and too often, the chord progression gets boring. Like leaving home but never venturing more than a few hundred metres before returning home.


     The other extreme is going away for too long a time, getting lost and never finding your way back home.


     So, in good songwriting, you have to know how much consonant harmony to balance with dissonant harmony. You want to make things interesting, but not so “interesting” that following the music gets so difficult and confusing that the listener zones out.


     Getting back to the problem of ambiguity inherent in the progression...


C – G – C – pause – G – C – G – pause – G – C – G


...fortunately, there’s an easy fix. Just turn the V chord into a dissonant chord.


     In the above example, if the G major chord were converted into a dissonant chord, your brain would know for sure that the key could not possibly be G major. That’s because the I chord is always a consonant triad.


     Recall that there are only two basic types of chords, namely, triads and sevenths. All triads (except diminished and augmented) are consonant. All seventh chords are dissonant because they all contain at least one interval that arises from a complex frequency ratio.


     So, to convert that consonant V chord to a dissonant chord, the simplest thing to do is to add another note, converting it into a dissonant V7 chord (“five-seventh,” in Nashville Number parlance).



6.7.3

THE DOMINATOR: WHY THE V7 CHORD CONTROLS HARMONY


Figure 54 below shows the four notes that comprise the V7 chord. This chord has three internal intervals:

   

     1.  Major third (5 – 7, four semitones)


     2.  Minor third (7 – 2, three semitones)


     3.  Minor third (2 – 4, three semitones)




FIGURE 54  Notes of the V7 Chord: Scale Degrees 5, 7, 2, and 4



 


                     


     The V7 chord has some remarkable properties. Compare Figure 54 above with Figure 55 below:




FIGURE 55  Interval Dynamics






 

        The V7 chord contains the first note of all three of the most highly unbalanced intervals—scale degrees 2, 4, and 7; and

   

        The I chord contains the second note of all three of these intervals—scale degrees 1, 3, and 1 (8).

  

     That’s why the V7 chord desperately seeks to resolve to the I chord. It’s down on its knees in the dirt, its horse having bolted, weeping and pleading, "Resolve me, resolve me.”


     (The V7 chord also seeks to resolve to the Im chord, but not quite as strongly. The Im chord has that ♭3 note, so the distance from the 4 note to the ♭3 is a whole tone instead of a semitone.)


     When you progress from G7 to C major, you move from these notes:


G – B – D – F


to these notes:


C – E – G

   

     1.  The scale relationship of the note B in the G7 chord (the chord being left behind) with respect to the root note C (the foundation note) in the new chord, C major, is 7 – 1 (8).

   

Your brain feels a strong sense of satisfaction when the note B in the G7 chord resolves to the root note C in the new chord, C major.

   

     2.  Similarly, the scale relationship of the note D in the G7 chord (the chord being left behind) with respect to the root note C in the new chord, C major, is 2 – 1.

   

Your brain feels a strong sense of satisfaction when the note D in the G7 chord resolves to the root note C in the new chord, C major.

   

     3.  Finally, the scale relationship of the note F in the G7 chord (the chord being left behind) with respect to the middle note E in the new triad, C major, is 4 – 3.

   

Your brain feels a strong sense of satisfaction when the note F in the G7 chord resolves to the middle note E in the new triad, C major.


     No wonder, then, that these three simultaneous moves:


        B moving up to C (7 – 1),


        D moving down to C (2 – 1), and


        F moving down to E (4 – 3),


combine to provide your brain with a feeling of “perfect” cadence.


     The V7 chord also contains that most unstable of all intervals, the pitchfork-toting tritone. It’s the interval formed by the fourth and seventh notes of the scale.


     As if that weren’t enough, the V7 chord subsumes the entire unstable diminished triad (VIIº)—scale degrees 7, 2, and 4.


     All of this makes the V7 chord ...


        Highly unbalanced and dissonant, and at the same time


        Strongly focussed, directed at the tonic centre, the I chord.

The V7 chord is the only chord in harmony capable of establishing tonality all by itself. It doesn’t even need the I chord to do it!

     The moment your brain hears a single V7 chord, without any other musical reference, without any reference whatsoever to the tonic chord or even the tonic note—the instant that V7 chord sounds, your brain knows where the dynamic centre is. It knows what the key is.

 

     When the seventh is added to the V chord, the chord’s name changes from the dominant chord to the dominant seventh chord.


     Try that little experiment with the C and G chords again, but this time, substitute G7 for G, like this:


C – G7 – C – pause – G7 – C – G7 – pause – G7 – C – G7


     Adding that seventh makes all the difference in the world. There’s no ambiguity whatsoever. The key can only be C major.


     The dominant seventh chord (V7) assumes its “dominant seventh” powers only if it’s a major V chord with the seventh note added. If you add the seventh note to a minor V chord (such as Gm, changing it to Gm7), the minor seventh chord does not become a dominant seventh, thanks to the ♭3 note in the Gm7 chord. That ♭3 does a couple of things to sabotage the dominant seventh quality:

 

        It changes 7 – 1 (8) to ♭7 – 1 (8) with respect to the tonic note, C. The leading tone disappears, removing directionality.

 

        It removes the tritone, making the chord much more stable-sounding.


     That’s why the dominant seventh chord of a minor key is a major V chord with the seventh note added. Just like the dominant seventh chord of a major key.


     If you were to hear only the single dominant seventh chord G7, without reference to any other chord (unlike the above “C – G7 – C” example), the key could be either C major or C minor, because G7 is the dominant seventh of both keys. These are called parallel keys. (More on this later in the chapter, in the discussion of various types of modulation.)



6.7.4

LAST TWEAKS OF THE HARMONIC SCALE


In light of all this, it’s now possible to make three more adjustments to the harmonic scale, finalizing it.

 

     1.  The V chord must be changed to V7, the dominant seventh, so that it points unambiguously to I, the tonic chord of the major key.

   

     2.  Similarly, the III chord must be changed to III7, the dominant seventh, so that it points unambiguously to VIm, the tonic chord of the relative minor key.

 

     3.  And finally, since the harmonic scale subsumes the basic chords of two keys, a major key and its relative minor, it would help to identify the two tonic chords.


     As for the VIIº chord, it’s always acutely dissonant, unbalanced. It can either be left it as it is or changed to a diminished seventh chord (VIIº7). It doesn’t really matter. Either way, the chord remains eminently unstable.


     One interesting thing about the VIIº chord. Because the four-note dominant seventh (V7) contains all three notes of the VIIº chord (and three out of four notes of the VIIº7 chord), you can often substitute the VIIº or VIIº7 chord in place of the V7 chord to create a striking harmonic effect.


     By the way, the IV chord is called the subdominant chord of the major key because, even though it only contains notes from the major scale and forms the only other major triad (besides the I and V triads), the IV chord does not have “dominant” power to focus harmonic traffic towards the tonic, the way the V7 chord does.


     As a major triad containing two notes not found in the other major triads, the IV chord belongs with I and V7 as one of the three basic chords of the major key. But, since it doesn’t have dominant power, it’s necessarily “subdominant,” like Deputy Fester.


     The IIm chord serves as the subdominant of the relative minor key and belongs with VIm and III7 as one of the three basic chords of the minor key.



6.7.5

THE HARMONIC SCALE: FINAL (“DEFAULT”) VERSION


At last, with the final revisions in place, it’s show time for the harmonic scale (Figure 56).




FIGURE 56  Harmonic Scale (“Default” Version)





                     


     In a little while, you’ll learn how to creatively mess with the “default” version of the harmonic scale—customize it to create strong, interesting chord progressions.


     To try out the default version of the harmonic scale, once again swap the Nashville Numbers for the chords of the keys of C major and A minor (Figure 57):




FIGURE 57  Harmonic Scale (“Default” Version): Key of C Major / A Minor





                     


     In the sections ahead, you will learn how to use harmonic scales the way you use melodic scales (major or minor).


     When you write a tune, do you simply go up and down the scale without skipping any notes? Without repeating notes? Without doubling back? Without reaching outside the scale to grab chromatic notes? Of course not! You’d never dream of limiting your melodic creativity that way.


     Similarly, when you use a harmonic scale, you will not simply go round the circle clockwise, without skipping any chords, without doubling back, without grabbing chords from outside the harmonic scale.


     A harmonic scale is not some formula that you have to adhere to rigidly, any more than a major scale is a rigid formula. A harmonic scale is just a scale, like a melodic scale. If you use harmonic scales intelligently, your music will just get better and better.


     Both melodic and harmonic scales provide coherent frameworks that enable you to write music of infinite variety without sacrificing unity. Ultimately, that’s why songwriters and composers use scales of any description, melodic or harmonic.


     Your brain—and the collective brain of your audience—has evolved to reject tonal confusion and accept the tonal order (founded on simple frequency ratios) inherent in the octave, diatonic scales, the triad, and the harmonic scales.



6.7.6

TWO DIFFERENT ANIMALS: COMPARING THE CIRCLE OF FIFTHS WITH THE HARMONIC SCALE


You might have noticed a vague resemblance between the Circle of Fifths and the circular harmonic scale. Except for their shape, the two are totally different. Different in structure, different in function. Table 44 summarizes the differences.




TABLE 44 Summary of Differences Between the Circle of Fifths and the Harmonic Scale

 


 

Circle of Fifths

Harmonic Scale

Shape

Circular arrangement of Key signatures.

Circular arrangement of chords.

Other Names for the Same Thing

• Heinichen’s Circle of Fifths

• Modulatory

Circle of Fifths

• Real Circle of Fifths

• Key-specific Circle of Fifths

• Virtual Circle of Fifths

NOTE: Do not use these names. They do not reflect reality, and will only confuse you.

Constituent Elements

Key signatures and letter names of keys.

Chords.

Number of Constituent Elements

12 key signatures representing 2 keys each.

7 chords.

Number of Keys Represented

24 keys—12 major keys and 12 relative minor keys.

2 keys—1 major and 1 relative minor key. (There are 12 different circular harmonic scales, one for each pair of keys—major and relative minor.)

Natural Direction of Motion

Clockwise or counterclockwise.

Clockwise is the “natural” direction.

Visual Representation of Major and Minor Keys

Represented in parallel. Major and minor keys form concentric circles.

Represented in series. Chords of one major key and one minor key form part of the same circle.

Main Purposes

• To show key signature formation. Proceeding clockwise, sharps increase by one. Proceeding counterclockwise, flats increase by one.

• To show degree of relatedness of keys to each other. Keys adjacent to each other share all the same scale notes but one, so are musically closely related. Keys across the circle from each other share few of the same scale notes, so are musically remote.

• To show the natural direction of harmonic scale neighbours within a single pair of “relative” keys. Proceeding clockwise resolves harmonic imbalance and tension. Proceeding counterclockwise creates harmonic imbalance and tension.

• To provide an easy way to identify third and second progressions. Second progressions are separated by one position on the circular scale. Third progressions are separated by two positions.

• To show how dominant and subdominant chords relate to tonic chords.

• To show secondary dominant chords.

• To show how the chords of major and relative minor keys relate to each other.

• To provide an easy visual means to spot pivot chords for purposes of modulation. Any two harmonic scales, no matter how musically distant their constituent keys, will always have at least two chord roots in common. These chords can be used to pivot smoothly between keys without losing tonal unity.






6.7.7

CIRCLE OF FIFTHS: THE MISTAKE OF TREATING KEYS AS “CHORDS


For generations, students, songwriters, and even music teachers, unaware of the harmonic scale and how it works, have used the Circle of Fifths as a crude harmony- organizing tool.


     Big mistake.


     If you treat the key names in the Circle of Fifths as chord names and proceed around the Circle of Fifths counterclockwise, you get descending fifth progressions. (Such progressions even have a name: Circle-of-Fifth progressions.)


     This is counter-intuitive, because the “natural” direction of the hands of a clock is obviously “clockwise” (the 12 positions of the Circle of Fifths are arranged to resemble a clock face). But apart from that, the Circle of Fifths has several major disadvantages as a harmonic scale stand-in:

   

     1.  No key-specific organizing framework. As you progress around the Circle of Fifths, you exit the key after the second chord! And you don’t return unless you go all the way round the circle. (More on this in a moment.)

   

     2.  No connection between the chords of a major key and the chords of its relative minor. Not only is the bridging diminished chord missing, but the 12 minor chords are visually organized in their own separate circle. Again, if you start a chord progression in any given minor key, you exit the key after two chords and don’t return until you go all the way round the circle.

   

     3.  No identification of dominant sevenths or subdominant chords for any given key.

   

     4.  No way to identify third and second progressions.

   

     5.  No way to identify pivot chords for purposes of modulation.


     The Circle of Fifths has its uses, but not for showing pathways to meaningful, coherent chord progressions and harmonic movement.


     Many musicians mistakenly think that the Circle of Fifths actually has something to do with chord progressions. Even authors of books on songwriting and music theory make this mistake, propagating rubbish and confusing their readers to no end.


     To be clear: the Circle of Fifths shows key signatures and key relations—but not chord relations.


     Here's an example of what happens when you treat the elements around the clock face of the Circle of Fifths as chords instead of keys. Presumably, you would want to progress around the Circle of Fifths as though it's a big circular chord progression. To simplify matters, consider the outer circle only, the elements that would be the major “chords” if the Circle of Fifths had anything to do with chords (Figure 58):




FIGURE 58 Circle of Fifths: Outer Circle Only







     Start at the top of the Circle of Fifths with the first chord, which is C, the tonic chord in the key of C. Then, moving counter-clockwise around the circle, progress to the next “chord,” which is F. Now you have a perfectly good two-chord progression in the key of C, namely C progressing to F.


     So far, so good.


     However (continuing counter-clockwise), the next “chord” you progress to is B♭. Now you’ve got a problem. The chord B♭ is not a chord in the key of C. Therefore, at this point you've actually exited the key of C.


     As you progress the rest of the way round the Circle of Fifths, you do not re-enter the key of C until you get to the “chord” G.


     Clearly, then, any notion that the elements of the Circle of Fifths having anything to do with chord progressions is wrong. The Circle of Fifths shows relationships among and between keys, not relationships among and between chords within a given key.


     To summarize, the Circle of Fifths does not work as a chord progression device. That’s the job of the harmonic scale—which also happens to be circular in shape, but has no functional relationship with the Circle of Fifths.



6.7.8

COMPARING MELODIC SCALES WITH HARMONIC SCALES


Before discussing how to make practical use of harmonic scales for fun and profit, here’s a summary of the differences between melodic scales and harmonic scales (Table 45):

 



TABLE 45 Summary of Differences Between Melodic Scales and Harmonic Scales

 


 

Melodic Scales

Harmonic Scales

Scale Units

Notes (pitches).

Chords (triads, sevenths, etc.).

Number of Units in Scale

Normally 5 to 7 notes, not including repetition of the octave note.

Always 7 chords. However, each harmonic scale position may be occupied by one of numerous variants of the “default” chord.

Number of Scale Types

Many types, including major and minor diatonic, pentatonic, modal, Indian, Arabic, etc.

Only one type: the harmonic scale.

Number of Scales in Western Tonal System

24 in total: one melodic scale for each major key and one for each minor key. (Note: there are several minor scale variants: natural minor, melodic minor, harmonic minor.)

12 in total: one harmonic scale for each pair of relative keys—major and relative minor.

Scale Degree Numerical Labels

Arabic numbers represent scale- degree notes. For example, the notes of the diatonic scale are represented as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1(8).

Nashville Number System: Roman numerals represent chords named for their scale-degree roots. Alphabetic letters, Arabic numbers and other symbols represent chord functions. For example:

I            Major triad with root of scale degree 1

 

IIm        Minor triad with root of scale degree 2

 

V7        Dominant seventh chord with root of scale degree 5

 

VIIº       Diminished chord with “root” of scale degree 7 (in reality, diminished chords are rootless)

Scale Degree Alphabetical Labels

Alphabetic letters represent the notes of a specific melodic scale. Accidentals follow the letter-names of the notes where applicable.

For example, the D major scale is: D, E, F♯, G, A, B, C♯, D.

Alphabetic letters represent the chords of a specific harmonic scale. Accidentals follow letter-names of chords where applicable. Alphabetic letters, Arabic numbers and other symbols are then added, representing chord functions.


For example, the harmonic scale for the key of D major and its relative minor is: D, G, C♯º, F♯7, Bm, Em, A7, D.

Normal Interval Movement Between Adjacent Scale Degrees

Melodic interval of a semitone or a tone.

Harmonic interval of a fifth progression.

Natural Direction of Movement

Ascending or descending are equally natural.

Descending only (clockwise) is natural.

Visual Representation

Vertical curve:



 One-way circle:

 




~ • ~ • ~ • ~

 

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~ • ~ • ~ • ~

 

You are reading the FREE SAMPLE Chapters 1 through 6 of the acclaimed 12-Chapter book, How Music REALLY Works!, 2nd Edition. Here's what's in Chapters 7 through 12. 

 

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 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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