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CHAPTER 6:
How Chords and Chord Progressions
REALLY Work
  
6.2 Triads and Sevenths: The Foundation of All Western Tonal Harmony

 
PAGE INDEX
  

6.2.1 Restless Intervals Make Restless Chords

6.2.2 The Paradox of Unsettled-sounding Consonant Inversions

6.2.3 That Moody Minor Sound Again

6.2.4 Diminished and Augmented: Disturbed Chords (But in a Nice Way)

6.2.5 The Most Boring Tune in the World

6.2.6 Harmony’s Gotta Move (Coherently, of Course)

6.2.7 That Other Chord Type: The Seventh

6.2.8 And What about All Those Jazz Chords Such as 9ths, 11ths, 13ths?

6.2.9 Slash Chords

6.2.10 Power Chords (Not to be Confused with Power Cords)

6.2.11 Drone On

 

~ • ~ • ~ • ~


6.2.1

RESTLESS INTERVALS MAKE RESTLESS CHORDS


If the chord contains only consonant intervals, it will sound consonant. But if it contains even one dissonant interval, the whole chord will sound dissonant (Table 36 below; Figure 41 below).

 



TABLE 36  Consonant and Dissonant Intervals

 

Interval

Number of Semitones

Example

Consonant/

 Dissonant

Minor Second

Major Second

Minor Third

Major Third

Perfect Fourth

Aug 4th or Dim 5th

Perfect Fifth

Minor 6th or Aug 5th

Major Sixth

Minor Seventh

Major Seventh

Octave

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

     C – C

     C – D

     C – E

     C – E

     C – F

     C – F

     C – G

     C – A

     C – A

     C – B

     C – B

     C – C

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant


  


     The chord C major in root position (C, E, G) consists of a major third interval (C – E) with a minor third interval stacked on top (E – G). Two consonant intervals. (These are called the internal intervals.)


     The interval from the root to the top note (C – G) is a perfect fifth, also consonant. (This is called the outer interval.) See Figure 41.




FIGURE 41 Intervals—C Major Scale





     The chord C major in first inversion (E, G, C) consists of a minor third (E – G) with a perfect fourth stacked on top (G – C). Two consonant internal intervals. The outer interval (E – C) is a minor sixth, also consonant.


     The chord C major in second inversion (G, C, E) consists of a perfect fourth (G – C) with a major third stacked on top (C – E). Two consonant internal intervals. The outer interval (G – E) is a major sixth, also consonant.


     Everywhere you look, nothing but consonant intervals. So why the heck don’t the first and second inversions sound balanced and “consonant,” like the chord in root position?

 


6.2.2

THE PARADOX OF UNSETTLED-SOUNDING CONSONANT INVERSIONS


Here’s what happens. In a chord, whichever note occupies the bass position with respect to the other notes of the chord will carry more harmonic weight by virtue of its necessarily more powerful (loud) fundamental and overtones (i. e., compared with the fundamentals and overtones of its higher-pitched chord-mates).


     In fact, the lowest note of a triad with respect to the other two notes wields so much power over the sound of the chord that the distribution of the other two notes doesn’t really matter.


     For example, in first inversion, the order of the notes could be either E, G, C or E, C, G. The chord will still have a characteristic “first inversion” sound (in this example, the sound of “the chord C Major with E in the bass”).


     In the context of a scale, every note is unbalanced to some degree, with respect to either scale degree 1 or 1 (8). Except, of course, scale degrees 1 and 1 (8) themselves, with respect to each other. So, having an unbalanced chord note (third or fifth) in the bass position (as is the case with first and second chord inversions) creates a certain amount of disturbance in the sound of the chord, despite the absence of dissonant intervals.


     To a hear a completely balanced, completely stable, completely consonant triad, you have to play it in root position.



6.2.3

THAT MOODY MINOR SOUND AGAIN


To get a major triad, such as the C major chord, you stack two “third” intervals on top of each other. A major third interval (four semitones) goes on the bottom, and a minor third interval (three semitones) sits on top. Note that the minor third interval has scale degree 3 as its bottom note.


     To get a minor triad such as the C minor chord (C, E♭, G), you flip the two intervals. The minor third goes on the bottom, the major third on top. Now the minor third interval (C – E♭) has scale degree 1 as its bottom note.


     The minor chord sounds stable, at rest ... except ... it has that spooky “minor” sound. When you play a C major chord followed immediately by an C minor chord, you hear, unmistakably, a drastic difference in perceived mood.


     Recall the discussion in Chapter 5 about the three versions of the minor scale. It doesn’t matter which scale you use—natural minor, melodic minor, or harmonic minor (or “grand minor”)—they all still retain the characteristic “minor” sound because they all have a minor third interval in relation to the tonic note (scale degree 1).


     Exactly the same applies to the minor chord in harmony. The minor triad consists of exactly the same internal and outer intervals as the major triad. The only difference is that the two internal intervals are flipped the other way around, so that the minor third relates to scale degree 1 instead of the major third relating to scale degree 1. The perceived “mood” of the chord changes completely.


     Unlike the major triad, the minor triad does not have all that internal overtone-reinforcement (Table 35). This could well be what causes the brain to perceive the minor triad as emotionally negative. That is, the discrepancy between what you’d expect an “ideal” triad to sound like (the sunny sound of a major triad) and what the minor triad actually sounds like (sad) could be due to lack of overtone-reinforcement. (More on chords and their emotional implications near the end of this chapter.)

 

   

6.2.4

DIMINISHED AND AUGMENTED: DISTURBED CHORDS (BUT IN A NICE WAY)


So far, you’ve heard the results of stacking a minor third atop a major third, creating a major chord. And stacking a major third atop a minor third (creating a minor chord). In both cases, you get a stable, balanced-sounding, consonant chord.


     What happens when you stack two minor thirds, one atop the other?


     A sound loaded with tension. Completely unbalanced and dissonant. Not “bad”—just unbalanced and dissonant. Even though it’s comprised of two consonant intervals, this chord doesn’t sound in any way self-contained, like the major and minor triads. How come?


     It’s that cloven-hoofed interval from Hell itself, the tritone—the most dissonant of intervals (also known as the diminished fifth), making its appearance as the chord’s outer interval. The chord you get when you pile two minor thirds atop each other is the diminished triad, or simply the diminished chord.


     How about stacking two major thirds, one atop the other?


     You get another rootless, restless-sounding chord. Again, unbalanced and dissonant, but not as dark sounding as the diminished chord.


     As with the diminished chord, both of the internal intervals are consonant (major thirds). The outer interval is a minor sixth, also known as an augmented fifth. Also consonant.


     This chord is called the augmented triad. It presents yet another harmonic paradox: the augmented triad is a mighty disturbed-sounding chord, yet it’s comprised entirely of consonant intervals, both internal and outer.


     What’s going on?

   

     As discussed in Chapter 4, dissonance and imbalance usually result when you divide the octave into small equal intervals to create a scale. This is also what happens when you divide the octave into large equal intervals, such as three equal intervals of major thirds or four equal intervals of minor thirds.


     Since the internal intervals are identical, both the diminished and augmented triads have no roots. That’s why they sound so unbalanced, and that’s what makes them harmonically interesting and useful.



6.2.5

THE MOST BORING TUNE IN THE WORLD


What do you hear when you play either a major chord or a minor chord in root position? A completely balanced sound. No tension.


     What do you hear when you play a tune consisting of an octave interval, 1 – 1 (8), or even several octave intervals? Same thing. No tension whatsoever.


     If you decided you wanted to write a monumentally boring song, how would you go about it?

 

        Use only octave intervals.

 

        Use one chord, the major triad. (Don’t use the minor triad; it’s too inherently emotional because of the minor third.)

 

        Make sure the major triad is in root position—scale degree 1 at the bottom.


     Such a tune would, in the immortal words of Monty Python, send bricks to sleep.


     What goes for intervals goes for chords: music doesn’t begin until dissonant chords take the stage. At every level, what’s called “music” emerges only when your brain perceives something interesting, challenging, evocative: sonic unrest, imbalance, instability.


     The major or minor triad (depending on whether you’re playing in the major or minor mode) serves the same purpose in harmony as the tonic note of the scale serves in melody. It establishes and reinforces tonality.


     Deviating from the major triad to create dissonant harmony serves the same purpose harmonically as deviating from predictable scale patterns serves in melody. It creates interest and suspense. Any time you’re not playing a simple triad, you’re playing a dissonant chord. The ear expects that, eventually, dissonance will resolve back to consonance.



6.2.6

HARMONY’S GOTTA MOVE (COHERENTLY, OF COURSE)


Your brain cannot experience sonic imbalance without a frame of reference. It has to experience “balance” before it can perceive and appreciate imbalance. That’s why a piece of music must first establish tonality. Hence, as mentioned previously, the typical four- or eight-bar instrumental introduction to a song.


     Once your brain knows where scale degree 1 is, it wants to light out for the Territory of tonal tension. The road trip takes place on several sonic levels:

  

     1.  Movement of pitches. A succession of intervals (not individual notes) creates variety by generating tonal tension and relieving it at a fast pace.

   

     2.  Movement of chords. A succession of chords (chord progression) creates variety by introducing dissonances, manipulating tonal tension at a slower pace than the tune itself.

  

A well-constructed chord progression simultaneously maintains tonal coherence by “pointing” to the tonal centre of the dynamic field.

 

When chords change without purposeful direction, harmony still moves, but it doesn’t seem to get anywhere. It wanders around, sounding unpalatable, lost in the desert, with vultures circling. It’s Deputy Fester himself, lost, removing his hat, fanning his face and muttering to his horse, “The tonality, the tonality ... “

   

     3.  Movement of keys. Tonicization and modulation create variety on a larger scale by taking tonality itself into parallel universes—different keys altogether. Usually (not always), tonality returns to Dodge City, like Marshal McDillon after Ms Puma forgave him and let him have his old job back because she missed the big galoot. And because she didn’t want the responsibility of being the marshal and having to keep track of Deputy Fester’s whereabouts.


     The music in harmony, like the music in melody, has a hard time getting noticed if it does not move. Chords may move slower than the notes of a tune, but move chords must.


     (Or ... not always. For instance, Bob Dylan’s scary, unforgettable “Ballad of Hollis Brown” uses one chord throughout, a minor triad. Look it up on the GSSL—Appendix 1.)



6.2.7

THAT OTHER CHORD TYPE: THE SEVENTH


So far, this chapter has discussed two flavours of one type of chord—the triad:

   

     1.  Balanced, consonant triads: major and minor chords;

   

     2.  Unbalanced, dissonant triads: diminished and augmented chords.


     There’s only one other main type of chord: the seventh. To get a seventh chord, you simply pile three “third” intervals atop each other.


     Now you’ve got a four-note chord. Unlike basic three-note major and minor triads, all seventh chords are dissonant.


     Here’s why:


     First, as an example, have another look at the intervals of the C major scale (Figure 42).




FIGURE 42 Intervals—C Major Scale



 



 

     The C major chord consists of the notes C, E, G, which is made up of two consonant intervals, C – E (a major third), and E – G (a minor third). If you’re going to stack on another third interval, it can only be either G – B♭ (a minor third interval), or G – B (a major third).


     In either case, two things apply:

   

     1.  The last remaining note of the chord is either a flatted seventh of the scale (B♭ in this example), or a natural seventh (B). Which is why this type of chord is called a seventh.

   

     2.  Whether the note you add is a flatted seventh (B♭) or a natural seventh, (B), this added note will always be dissonant because it’s either a whole tone or a semitone removed from the tonic note (C, in this example).


     And you found out in Chapter 4, whole tone and semitone intervals are always dissonant (Table 36).


     If even one interval of a chord is dissonant (internal or outer), the whole chord is dissonant. That’s why all chords except major and minor triads are dissonant.

   


6.2.8

AND WHAT ABOUT ALL THOSE JAZZ CHORDS SUCH AS 9THS, 11THS, 13THS?


They’re just triads and sevenths dressed up in fancy duds. They all have four or more notes, so they’re all dissonant.


     In fact, you can reduce all of the substance of harmony in the Western tonal system down to two measly chord types, the triad and the seventh, and their embellishments. Imagine that ... Beethoven, Mozart, Ellington, The Beatles ... all just two-chord wonders.


     To get a “ninth”-type chord, for example, you just grab another note, as though it’s from the next octave up. There’s nothing to stop scale degrees from continuing on, like this . . .


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1 (8), 2 (9), etc.


     However, unlike in melody, where you have low-pitched notes (the lower end of the scale) and high-pitched notes (the upper end), there’s no such thing as a low-pitched chord or a high-pitched chord. This concept is so important in harmony, it bears repeating in boldface:

There’s no such thing as a low-pitched chord or a high-pitched chord.

     A chord is just a chord, as you’ll find out later in this chapter.


     Meanwhile, the best way to envision where the notes come from to create extended chords such as 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths is to consider octaves as “overlapping.” So, for example, in the key of C,


the note “C” is scale note 1

the note “D” is scale note 2

the note “E” is scale note 3


     When you get to the end of the scale (the “C” at the end of the octave is the 8th note of the scale), you just continue on with higher numbers. So the note “D” becomes the 9th note of the scale, in addition to being the 2nd note. The note F becomes the 11th note (in addition to the 4th), etc. Like this:




For example, here are the component notes of some seventh and ninth chords ...

 

        The chord C7 (C seventh) is comprised of these notes played simultaneously:


C    E    G    B♭

 

The term “seventh chord” always means that the seventh note of the scale is a flatted seventh.

 

        The chord CM7 (C major seventh) is comprised of these notes played simultaneously:


C    E    G    B

 

The term “major seventh chord” always means the seventh note of the scale is a natural seventh (not flatted).

 

        The chord C9 (C ninth) is comprised of these notes played simultaneously:


C    E    G    B♭    D

 

The “seventh” chord (the four-note chord with the flatted seventh) is the underlying chord, and the “ninth” note (the D) is added.


     With this chord, or any chord, the arrangement of the notes can be in any order, because there’s no such thing as a low-pitched chord or a high-pitched chord. The chord remains the same chord. For example, you could play the above C9 chord on the piano as above, or you could play it like this:


C    G    B♭    D    E


or like this:


E    B♭    D    G    C


It’s still the same C9 chord. You’ll see why in the discussion coming up about how chords actually change.

 

        The chord CM9 (C major ninth) is comprised of these notes:


C    E    G    B    D

 

This one is called a “major ninth” chord because the underlying chord is a major seventh (the chord with the natural seventh). The “ninth” note (the D) is added to create the chord C major ninth.

 

        The chord Cm9 (C minor ninth) is comprised of these notes:


C    E♭    G    B♭    D

 

In this case, the chord is called a “minor ninth” because the underlying chord is a minor chord (actually a minor seventh chord, Cm7).


     The nomenclature of such chords comes from the application of a few basic rules. If the name of the chord has the word ...

 

        “minor” in it, such as “C minor seventh” (Cm7) or “C minor ninth” (Cm9), then it’s a minor triad, usually with an added flatted seventh (and more notes may be added)

 

        “major” in it, such as “C major seventh” (CM7) or “C major ninth" (CM9), then it’s a major triad, usually with an added natural seventh (and more notes may be added)

 

        “suspended” in it, such as “C suspended fourth” (Csus4) or “C suspended second” (Csus2), then it’s a triad in which the note in scale position 3 has been removed and replaced with the note in scale position 4, or 2 (e. g., instead of C, E, G, you’d have the notes C, F, G, which is Csus4, or C, D, G, which is Csus2)


     To get extended 9th, 11th, and 13th chords, all you do is stack more thirds atop the underlying 7th chord.

 

        If you pile a third on top of a 9th, you get an 11th chord:

 

C11 =  C    E    G    B♭    D    F

 

        If you pile a third on top of an 11th, you get a 13th chord:

 

C13 =  C    E    G    B♭    D    F    A


     Now you’ve got six- and seven-note chords. So you need two hands to play them on the keyboard. As for six-string guitar, to play a 13th chord, you have to leave out one of the notes (normally the 11th).


     Your brain processes 9th, 11th, and 13th chords as though they’re some fancy species of 7th chords. All such chords are dissonant.


     Just keep in mind that all chords are triads and sevenths, or variations of triads and sevenths.


     These extended chords are very common in jazz and romantic music of the 19th Century.

 

 

What Is That Mysterious Beatles Chord?

 

It’s one of the most famous chords in rock music. That “krrraannggg!” chord right off the top of the Beatles’ classic, “A Hard Day’s Night.”


What is that chord?


No one in the Beatles’ organization would tell. Not even George Martin. So, arguments raged for decades about the mysterious chord. Fights broke out in the streets of Wichita and Dodge City. Frightened horses galloped away in clouds of dust. Doc Yada-Yadams spent hours treating the injured and sipping hooch from his still. Nobody could agree on the identity of that chord. Even Ms Puma, who normally knows everything, had to admit she was stumped.


Finally, from out of the frozen northern wastelands of Nova Scotia, Canada, a stranger rode into town, a mathematics professor named Jason Brown. And what did the stranger do? Why, he took off his hat and tossed it on a peg, and then he sat down at a computer and digitized that dang chord real good. And then Dr. Brown spent six months deconstructing it. When it was all over and the dust had settled, the mathematical stranger had solved the mystery.


What did Dr. Brown find?

 

        George Harrison played the notes D, A, C, and G on his 12-string Rickenbacker electric guitar.

 

        Paul McCartney played the note D on his bass.

 

        George Martin played the notes D, F, E, and G on the piano.

 

        John Lennon may have played the note C on his 6-string guitar.

 

        Put them all together and you get: D F A C E G, which is the chord Dm11 (D minor eleventh), which is the same as the chord D minor (D F A) and the chord C major (C E G) played simultaneously.


The next chord on the record is the tonic chord, G major, which begins the verse. The Dm11 chord, then, is a jazzy variant of the dominant seventh chord.

 

Some ornery folks dispute Dr. Brown’s findings. Marshal McDillon was thinking seriously of locking them all up for the commotion they cause, because that’s a cliche of law ‘n’ order in a Classic Western like this one. Then Ms Puma wisely reminded Marshal McDillon of the importance of free inquiry. She poured him a double bourbon and he drunk it down in one swallow and didn’t cough like the late Billy Joe up there on Boot Hill.




6.2.9

SLASH CHORDS


In most song books showing words and chords, or words, melody line, and chords, you will see chord notations such as these:


C/A

G/D

D/F♯


     These chords are called slash chords, as in "C slash A" or "G slash D". Although musicians usually say, "C over A" or "G over D".


     In slash chord notation, such as G/D:

 

        The note before the slash signifies the actual chord (in this example, the chord "G").

 

        The note after the slash is a bass note (in this example, the bass note "D") played simultaneously with the chord.


     Therefore, a slash chord is not generally considered to be a "unique" chord. Literally any chord can be turned into a slash chord.


     If the bass note following the slash is one of the notes in the chord itself, then you just need to make sure the note following the slash is the lowest note in the chord.


     For example, G/D means:

"Play an ordinary G major chord and make sure the lowest note (the bass note) is D."

     If the bass note following the slash is not one of the notes in the chord itself, then the note following the slash is just a bass note that you add to the chord.


     For example, C/A ("C over A") means:

"Play an ordinary C major chord and at the same time, add an A note as a bass note."

     You can play the added "A" in the bass on your own instrument (guitar or piano). Or, alternatively, your bass player can hit the "A" bass note as you simultaneously play the "C" major chord. The musical effect is the same.


     The bass note following the slash can be any of the 12 notes in the chromatic scale. It does not have to be even remotely related to the chord.


     So, for instance, you can play "slash chords" such as D/E♭ or D/C. When the bass note following the slash is not a note in the chord itself (for example, the "A" in C/A), it's often a brief passing note as you step through a series of chords, such as the chord progression C – C/A -- F.


     You can add any bass note to any chord under the sun and call it a "slash chord." For example, major chords:

D/E♭

D/E

D/F

D/F♯

D/G

etc.

     Or minor chords:

Dm/E♭

Dm/E

Dm/F

Dm/F♯, etc.

     In musical composition generally, and harmony particularly, the bass part plays a central role in establishing and maintaining tonality, and also in signalling changes in melodic and harmonic direction. That’s where the bass power of slash chords can be useful.



6.2.10

POWER CHORDS (NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH POWER CORDS)


A power cord is cable that connects an appliance such as a guitar amp to a power source such as a power bar or wall socket.


     A power chord is a type of chord that had to be invented after electric guitar players started overdriving preamplifiers and speakers to create massively distorted sound. Heavy metal, heavy rock, and punk music characteristically employ power chords.

 

     The legendary rock guitarist Link Wray is generally credited with inventing the power chord. He pioneered the use of distortion and feedback in electric guitar playing. For example, he would deliberately punch holes in the speakers of his guitar amp in order to achieve a satisfactorily distorted sound.


     Recall earlier in this chapter, the following distinction:

For practical purposes, think of a chord as three or more different-pitched notes played or sung simultaneously. Not two. Consider two notes, whether sounded simultaneously or in succession, an interval.

     The power chord is the exception. A power chord consists of only two different notes played simultaneously, the tonic and fifth notes of the scale.

 

        The root of the power chord (tonic note of the scale) is usually in the lower-pitched position.

 

        However, the fifth may be in the lower-pitched position.

 

        The root may be doubled, an octave higher or lower.

 

        The fifth may be doubled, an octave higher or lower.


     The defining property of a power chord is that the third is missing. The reason has to do with distortion. If you play an ordinary major or minor triad on an electric guitar through an amp with tons of distortion, the overtones are so muddied-up that your brain has a hard time figuring out that it’s even hearing a chord, let alone what kind of harmony it’s supposed to be. All your brain can discern is formless noise.


     However, if you leave out the third, then your brain can usually distinguish a basic harmonic interval, a perfect fifth—even with all the distortion. Although it’s only an interval, and not a chord in the normal sense of the word, at least it is harmony. The overwhelming dissonance of the electronic distortion provides the sense of power (see “Emotional Effects of Intervals," Chapter 4).


     Since power chords consist of only two different notes, you can learn to play them pretty easily. You can finger a power chord anywhere on the guitar fretboard. But without a doubt, the heaviest, darkest, most powerful sounding power chords are those you play on the bass strings. Low pitch plus massive dissonance combine to create a dark, ominous feeling.


     A couple of final points about power chords:

 

        A power chord is usually symbolized by combining the letter-name of the root note with the number 5. For example:


C5 or C fifth

 

        Since the third is missing, you can’t tell whether the prevailing mode is major or minor. Heavy metal songwriters exploit this characteristic by making use of the Church modes for melodic purposes, resulting in a distinctive or signature sound.



6.2.11

DRONE ON


Before continuing on to chord progressions, a word or two about harmony by drone—ubiquitous in some musical cultures.


     Western Europeans did not “discover harmony” in the 16th and 17th centuries by developing the Western tonal system, with its 12 major keys, 12 minor keys, and equal temperament. Our ancestors doubtless were harmonizing vocally tens of thousands of years ago.


     Instrumentally, drone-based harmonic systems have existed for ages. The major difference between drone-based harmonic systems and the Western tonal system is that you can’t change key while playing a drone-tuned instrument. You have to stop and retune.


     A drone is a sustained note (or group of notes) that accompanies a developing melody. Drones can take several forms:

 

        A single note

 

        Two or more notes of identical pitch

 

        Two or more notes pitched in octaves

 

        Two notes in related pitches


     Sometimes the drone note sounds continuously:

 

        Various kinds of bagpipes.

 

        Hurdy gurdy: the player cranks a wheel that vibrates strings that sustain the drone note.


     Sometimes a musician strums or plucks a single note rhythmically (a “rhythmic drone”) to sustain the drone effect and also provide rhythmic accompaniment.


     While normally instrumental, some drone traditions feature vocalists singing drone syllables.


     Drone sounds are found in many of the world’s musical cultures:

 

        Indian classical music

 

        Jew’s harp (jaw harp) playing

 

        Fiddle traditions such as Celtic, eastern European, and Appalachian

 

        Australian aboriginal didgeridoo playing


     Usually the drone tone is the tonic note—though not necessarily in the Western diatonic tonal music tradition. Sometimes a single drone tone is not the tonic.


     When the drone is the tonic note, it serves the same function as the tonic note in Western diatonic harmony. It acts as the musical centre of gravity, an important unifying role when employed with scales other than diatonic major or minor scales (or close relatives such as pentatonic scales).


     A drone sound makes it possible to play modal melodies while providing harmony, because every melodic note automatically harmonizes with the drone, except melodic notes identical to the drone. Some are close harmonies (related by simple frequency ratios), others are dissonant harmonies.


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You are reading the FREE SAMPLE Chapters 1 through 6 of the acclaimed 12-Chapter book, How Music REALLY Works!, 2nd Edition. Here's what's in Chapters 7 through 12. 

 

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 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

   Top

 

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