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CHAPTER 4:
How Scales and Intervals REALLY
Work
  
4.3 Interval Dynamics

 
PAGE INDEX
  

4.3.1 Musical Drama

4.3.2 Scale Degrees

4.3.3 Curvature of the Major Scale

4.3.4 Interval Dynamics: Curved Arrows Through Your Brain

4.3.5 Interval Dynamics: Musical Road Trips

4.3.6 Interval Dynamics: Curved Arrows and Context

4.3.7 Interval Dynamics: Manipulating Tonal Tension

4.3.8 The Tyrannical Octave

~ • ~ • ~ • ~


4.3.1

MUSICAL DRAMA


Recall that an interval is a relationship between two pitches. Why the stress on “relationship”? Because that’s where the “music” in tunes and harmony comes from. Each note in a scale, and, ultimately, in a tune, sounds restful or restless, relaxed or tense, depending on the note’s position with respect to the other notes in the scale or tune. These note-to-note relationships, the urges and forces your brain perceives when it hears a tune are called interval dynamics.

The activity that goes on in your brain to process these interval relationships is your musical experience.

     In general, if music contains a large amount of unrest as the tune (melody) moves from interval to interval and chord to chord, you have an emotionally charged musical experience.


     Intervals perform like the characters in a novel, sit-com, movie, or play. You get interested and emotionally involved in a dramatic story only when you perceive tension and unrest among the characters. Similarly when you perceive tension and unrest among the intervals as the tune and chords progress, you experience emotional involvement.



4.3.2

SCALE DEGREES


Figure 18 (below) shows all eight notes of the major scale, beginning and ending with C. However, there are other scales besides the scale of C major. So, to discuss interval dynamics in general, not just for the C major scale, it’s necessary to assign numbers to each of the tones of the scale.


     When you number each note of the diatonic scale, the numbered notes are called scale degrees.




FIGURE 18  The Major Scale Showing Scale Degrees (Numbers)





     The first and last notes of the scale share the same number, so “(8)” is added to the last note in the following discussion of interval dynamics to distinguish first from last.


     Each scale degree has its own name. Only some of these names are important enough to keep in mind, the ones in bold type (Table 19):




TABLE 19  Names of the Scale Degrees


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


1 (8)
 

Tonic


Supertonic


Mediant


Subdominant


Dominant


Submediant


Leading Tone


Tonic


  


4.3.3

CURVATURE OF THE MAJOR SCALE


How does your mind interpret what you hear when you play a major scale? Call this scale what you like ...


do

re

mi

fa

so

la

ti

do

C

D

E

F

G

A

B

C

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1 (8)


... it’s the same scale. Figure 19 (below) gives you a better visual representation than Figure 18 (above). Here’s how your mind actually hears this scale:

 



FIGURE 19  Interval Dynamics: “Going Away, Then Coming Back”   

 




     You hear the pitch rising higher and higher as you proceed upwards through the scale degrees, from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4, all the way up to 1 (8).


     Or you hear the pitch falling as you proceed downwards from 1 (8) to 7 to 6 to 5, all the way down to 1.


     As you proceed upwards through the scale degrees, each tone sounds like it’s not only ascending in pitch, but also moving further away from the vertical line that runs through 1 and 1 (8).


     Then, when you get to scale degree 5, something happens. The direction of motion reverses. And, although the pitch continues to rise, the tones sound like they’re somehow returning home, towards 1 (8).


     And yet, it’s a different version of home, a different version of the tonal centre.


     Oddly, you get this “going away, then coming back” sensation whether you ascend the scale from one end to the other, or descend it from one end to the other.



4.3.4

INTERVAL DYNAMICS: CURVED ARROWS THROUGH YOUR BRAIN


The following discussion pertains to interval dynamics in tunes without chords. Tunes with harmony are discussed in Chapter 6.


     When you play a single note, that’s all your brain perceives. Just a note. Not music (ignoring, for the time being, the tiny little matter of rhythm). But when you play at least two successive notes that are different from each other—an interval—suddenly you have at least the possibility of music.


     In Figure 20 below, the arrows show the tensions, the unrest your brain perceives in the relationships between the tones (that is, the intervals), as you play the scale up or down.


     The term interval dynamics refers to the fact that, once your brain understands which note is the tonic note, it perceives the succession of tones as energized, dynamic players that move in force fields—not as static, lifeless beads on a string. Without interval dynamics, there’d be no music.


     In Figure 20, the thicker the arrow, the greater the dynamic tension or unrest.




FIGURE 20  Interval Dynamics: How Your Brain Actually Hears the Major Scale

 




4.3.5

INTERVAL DYNAMICS: MUSICAL ROAD TRIPS


Recall that simple ratios of frequencies gave rise to a scale in the first place. However, some frequency ratios within the scale are simpler than others. When your brain hears two frequency ratios, one simple, the other not-as-simple, it perceives an urging of the not-as-simple frequency ratio to become simpler. That’s the onset of a tune.


     As the tune moves from note to note, your brain stays interested only if most of the ratios of frequencies do not resolve to simpler ones, while holding the promise of ultimately resolving.


     To get a tune started, you need a minimum of two frequency ratios so that your brain can tell which one is simpler than the other. This can happen only if you hear at least three successive notes:

 

        A single frequency ratio is a ratio of two different notes (one interval).

 

        Therefore two frequency ratios require at least three notes (two consecutive intervals).


     Every interval except the octave creates tension or unrest. This tension creates a musical story line or musical narrative, as musicologists call it, especially when referring to long-form instrumental works, such as symphony movements. Here’s how Anthony Storr describes the nature of musical adventuring:

Hero myths typically involve the protagonist leaving home, setting out on adventures, slaying a dragon or accomplishing other feats, winning a bride, and then returning home in triumph... The end of the piece is usually indicated by a return ‘home’ to the tonic; most commonly to the major triad, less commonly to the minor. A hero myth is an archetypal pattern, deeply embedded in the psyche, because it reflects the experience of nearly all of us. We all have to ‘leave home’ by severing some of the ties which bind us to it ...

     Musical narratives apply to any musical form, including short songs. Here are three of many versions:

 

     1.  “The Muso of Oz” story line. The protagonist leaves Kansas—the tonic note, the first note of the scale—on a mysterious journey. Immediately, tension arises (the curved arrows in Figure 20), and the tune finds itself on a yellow brick road trip, trying find its way back home.

 

Will the tune find its way back home? Will it run into more tension and unrest before it finds its way home? Will it get hopelessly lost and have to rely on Marshal Puma to dispatch Doc and Fester, neither of whom can even stay upright on a horse?

 

Usually, the tune does find its way back to tonic Kansas. End of tune.

 

     2.  “The Escapee” story line. The protagonist moves through various dynamic tonal fields, hiding, disguising itself, trying to escape re-capture.

   

Will the fugitive, Dr. Richard Cymbal, get caught somewhere along the road and hauled back to Tonal Headquarters to face the music? Will everything somehow resolve in a Hollywood ending of dramatic climax, car chases, explosions, truth, and justice?


          Yes, of course. End of story and tune.

 

     3.  The “Lord of the Tunes” story line. The protagonist is the sovereign, the queen or king (could it be Elvis?), the holder of authority over the tune.

 

The plot concerns itself with the loss and regaining of rightful authority. The sovereign’s source of authority, the Tonic Note, somehow passes into the possession of other notes. The story is still a road trip—a tune would not be a tune if it didn’t move continuously and, to a degree, restlessly. The identity of the holder of sovereignty gets called into question.

 

Will the rightful sovereign get back sovereignty? Yes, usually. End of story and tune.


     Every tune’s a road trip. If the tune’s really short, the story’s over in seconds (for example, numerous nursery tunes). If the tune takes a lot of twists and turns, the story might go on for 20 minutes before the tune finally finds its way back home (a symphonic movement).



4.3.6

INTERVAL DYNAMICS: CURVED ARROWS AND CONTEXT


Music arises when your brain compares frequency ratios of a succession of notes, an order of intervals. That means your brain needs context. If it’s a tune without chords, the first note you hear supplies the beginning of context. The second note provides more information. The third, still more information. And so on.


     All the while, your brain is comparing frequency ratios. If it perceives several different simple frequency ratios (for example, 2:1, 3:2, 4:3, etc.) among the note relationships (i.e., the intervals), it figures out there’s an organizing principle at work that is giving rise to the succession of simple frequency ratios it’s perceiving.


     What is this organizing principle?


     A scale of some sort.


     It then expects to hear more notes from the same scale, but not necessarily in the same order.


     In fact, your brain will get bored and lose interest in the tune unless it perceives some surprises in the relationships between the pitches (the intervals) as the tune moves on.


     As soon as the tune begins (sets the musical road trip in motion), your brain goes to work figuring out which note is the tonic—the tonal centre. All of the frequency ratios that define the other intervals depend on the tonal centre for context. The tonic note acts as a kind of gravitational force on the tune as a whole, which is why it’s called the tonal centre.


     Your brain perceives a hierarchy of stability, with scale degree 1 (the tonic note) perceived as most stable.


 

The Musical Adventures of “Tritone,” the Cat

 

As discussed in Chapter 1, chimpanzees create abstract paintings that sell for big bucks.


So, why couldn’t a talented cat compose music on the piano? If people buy chimp paintings, somebody might buy cat music.


Marshal Puma inherited a piano-playing cat after Ex-Marshal McDillon left town in a ball of feathers and humiliation. The cat, Tritone, walks along Marshal Puma’s piano keyboard.


Yes, but is it music?


Your brain hears a succession of random notes and can’t figure out which one is the tonal centre. Therefore, it can’t apply an organizing principle—a scale—to the notes it hears. So it can’t make sense of any of the intervals Tritone is playing.


Not only that, but Tritone, being a cat, has no ability to entrain. So he can’t even walk along the keys in a recognizably rhythmic style.


Still, people do pay thousands of dollars for chimpanzee paintings. Who knows, Marshal Puma might want to record Tritone’s piano playing and send a demo to a record label in some other city, such as Wichita or even Austin. One that specializes in postmodern music.



     Here’s another way of looking at the way the tones of the major scale gravitate towards the tonal centre (Figure 21):



 

FIGURE 21  Interval Dynamics: “Gravitational Force” of the Tonic Note

 




     Figure 21 illustrates the appropriateness of the term “diatonic.” All the notes of this type of scale ultimately relate to each other diatonically—“through” or “by” the “tonic” note.


     When you play a simple major scale, how does your brain automatically figure out and interpret what it’s hearing? Table 20 below shows the basics. You need context. Your brain needs to process all of the notes successively for you to feel these effects.

 


   

TABLE 20  Interval Dynamics, Major Scale


Note

Move-

ment

Interval

Name

Fig. 20

Graphic

State of Unrest/ Tension (with Respect to Tonic Note)

1 – 2

Major second (whole tone)

Thick arrow

Upper note of major second (frequency ratio of 9:8) seeks to resolve down to the tonal centre. Motion against the natural force, 1 – 2, creates high tension. Motion with the natural force, 2 – 1, resolves it.

4 – 3

Minor second (semi-tone)

Thick arrow

Upper note of minor second (frequency ratio of 16:15) seeks to resolve down to the closest note, scale degree 3, with its much simpler frequency ratio of 5:4 with respect to the tonal centre. Motion against the natural force, 3 – 4, creates high tension. Motion with the natural force, 4 – 3, resolves it.

7 – 1 (8)

Minor second (semi-tone)

Thick arrow

Lower note of minor second (frequency ratio of 16:15) seeks to resolve up to the tonal centre. Motion against the natural force, 1 (8) – 7, creates high tension. Motion with the natural force, 7 – 1 (8), resolves it.

3 – 1

Major third

Medium arrow

Upper note of major third (frequency ratio of 5:4) seeks to resolve down to the closest tonal centre. Motion against the natural force, 1 – 3, creates moderate tension. Motion with the natural force, 3 – 1, resolves it.

6 – 5 or

6 – 1 (8)

Minor second or

Minor third  

Medium arrow 

Scale degree 6 has a roughly equal urge to resolve either down to the simpler frequency ratio of the nearby scale degree 5, or up to the closest tonal centre. Motion against the natural forces, 5 – 6 or 1 (8) – 6, creates moderate tension. Motion with the natural forces, 6 – 5 or 6 – 1 (8) resolves it.

5 – 1 or

5 – 1 (8)

Perfect fifth or

Perfect fourth

Thin arrow

Scale degree 5 has a only a very slight but roughly equal urge to resolve to either tonal centre. Motion against the natural forces, 1 – 5 or 1 (8) – 5 creates slight tension. Motion with the natural forces, 5 – 1 or 5 – 1 (8) resolves it.



     Your brain perceives all of the notes except the tonal centres, 1 and 1 (8), in some state of unrest as you play the scale. You can use any of several terms to characterize these interval dynamics:


restless  


unbalanced  


tense  


unstable  


dissonant  

vs  at rest


vs  balanced


vs  resolved


vs  stable


vs  consonant


     The instant these forces come into play—the instant you hear a series of notes played or sung (a succession of intervals)—your brain may sense a tune (musical motion). It depends on the frequency ratios of the intervals and whether or not your brain can sense in those intervals an underlying organization.


     Your brain automatically tries to determine if the intervals correspond to simple ratios of frequencies. It will also try to determine the tonal centre, the note that serves as the anchor for purposes of identifying the simple ratios. If it identifies several familiar simple frequency ratios, it instantly understands the organizing principle (a diatonic scale) and perceives some sort of tune—a succession of intervals manifesting a variety of levels of dynamic tension.



4.3.7

INTERVAL DYNAMICS: MANIPULATING TONAL TENSION


Just as a writer of a movie script or play manipulates tension through the actions of characters, a composer or songwriter manipulates tension through the actions of intervals. Some intervals deliver more tonal tension than others.

 

     Normally, a composer or songwriter comes up with a tune without intellectualizing about it. The tune just comes out as an effusion. However, like any good writer, a skilled songwriter or composer will then go over the tune and recognize weak spots—places where the tune drags (not enough high-tension intervals), or becomes confusing (too much material for short-term memory to handle), as it moves from note to note.


     A knowledge of interval dynamics becomes vital in revising the tune. Historically, great composers (e. g., Beethoven) and songwriters (e. g., Leonard Cohen, Paul Simon), have sweated over revisions until they sense the tune has its own identity and doesn’t get tired-sounding, even after repeated listenings.


     Any tune retains a distinct identity no matter where it’s played or sung in the spectrum of pitches. Therefore, any pitch whatsoever can serve as the tonal centre, the tonic note. It’s the frequency ratios that matter, not the specific frequency that serves as the foundation (tonic note) for determining the ratios.


     The intervals with the simplest frequency ratios have the lowest dynamic tension, the greatest stability. The octave, with a frequency ratio of 2:1, is, of course, the most stable interval.


     The perfect fifth, with its 3:2 frequency ratio, has very little inherent tension, and therefore serves as a kind of counter terminus to the tonic notes at either end of the scale. The perfect fifth has so much natural stability that many tunes end on it (instead of the tonic, which is where most tunes end), and the listener does not feel as though the tune has failed to come to rest.


     At the other extreme, the minor second can supply a lot of tension, especially in its role as scale degree 7 going up to 1 (8). Because scale degree 7 strongly seeks to resolve up to 1 (8), scale degree 7 is known as the leading tone.


     It’s important to reiterate that your brain does not “learn” any of this. It’s hard-wired. You will always sense these states of rest or unrest, tension or resolution, etc., whenever you hear a variety of simple ratios of frequencies in succession.



4.3.8

THE TYRANNICAL OCTAVE


You don’t have to think of the octave as tyrannical. But, like other natural phenomena (gravity, for instance), it is. As Figure 20 above illustrates, all arrows curve to the octave notes. In music, you can’t break free of the tyrannical octave.


     No matter how hard your tune may try to break the chains of 1 and 1 (8), there’s just no escaping. Your tune merrily leaves home, lights out for the territory, and ends up ... where? Strangely, back home. Without having turned back. Without having gone in a circle.


     The irreducible simplicity of the 2:1 (octave) frequency ratio induces a feeling of balance or repose. All other pitches arise from more complex frequency ratios such as 3:2, 4:3, 5:4, and so on. Your brain distinguishes them from the octave interval notes in two ways:

 

     1.  By associating a “different-from-octave” qualitative sound with each note representing each “non - 2:1" frequency ratio, within the context of the octave interval.

   

For example, as you play the white keys on the piano from C up to the next C, you hear the notes D, E, F, G, A, and B all sounding qualitatively different from the C you started the scale with.

   

But when you get to the C at the top of the scale, even though it’s a different note, it sounds qualitatively the same as the C you started with. Yes, it’s higher in pitch, but it still sounds to your brain like the identical note you started with, C.

 

     2.  By associating a feeling of imbalance or unrest with each non-octave note. This feeling of unrest or tension increases in intensity as frequency ratios become more complex with respect to the octave interval.


     You can stuff as many notes as you want between 1 and 1 (8), but you still won’t escape the octave. You can never pry the octave open any wider, because you can’t reduce a frequency ratio to anything simpler than 2:1.


     Paradoxically, making peace with the smallest intervals of the octave, the semitones (through a bit of fudging called equal temperament), provides more than ample relief, if not escape, from the octave’s tyranny (coming up in Chapter 5).


     (Tuning purists will note that some tuning systems slightly “stretch” the octave, such as one used by Indonesian Gamelan percussion orchestras. But such tunings are highly variable and, in any case, unheard of in Western popular music.)


~ • ~ • ~ • ~

 

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 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

   Top

 

 

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