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CHAPTER 4:
How Scales and Intervals REALLY
Work
  
4.2 Intervals

 
PAGE INDEX
 

4.2.1 The Basic Intervals

4.2.2 Interval Names Explained

4.2.3 Perfect Fifths and Scale Construction: Monty Pythagor’s Method

4.2.4 The Pythagorean Comma

4.2.5 Why Pythagorean Scales Emerged Independently on Several Continents

4.2.6 Consonance and Dissonance

4.2.7 Dissonance: Freaky Frequency Ratios

4.2.8 Intervals Within Scales

4.2.9 Complementary Intervals

4.2.10 Why Intervals Are the Real Musical Units of Melodies and Chords

 

~ • ~ • ~ • ~

 

4.2.1

THE BASIC INTERVALS


So far, three intervals have made an appearance:

 

        Octave: Pitch distance between the first note and the eighth note of the major scale (or first note and 13th note of the chromatic scale)

   

        Semitone: Pitch distance between any two adjacent notes of the chromatic scale

   

        Tone: Pitch distance of two semitones


     Other intervals exist, and they all have names, but not very interesting ones like Natasha or Engelbert. Since the semitone is the smallest interval, you can measure the other intervals in multiples of semitones.


     Even the tone and the semitone have their own special alternative “interval” names.


     Table 11 below lists all of the intervals within an octave. Usually (but not always), you reckon an interval—which is always two notes—as starting from the lower note and going to the upper note, as in the “Example” column in Table 11.




TABLE 11  Names of Basic Intervals


Interval

Number of Semitones

Example

Minor Second

Major Second

Minor Third

Major Third

Perfect Fourth

Augmented Fourth

Perfect Fifth

Minor Sixth

Major Sixth

Minor Seventh

Major Seventh

Octave

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

       C – C♯

       C – D

       C – E♭

       C – E

       C – F

       C – F♯

       C – G

       C – A♭

       C – A

       C – B♭

       C – B

       C – C


  


4.2.2

INTERVAL NAMES EXPLAINED


Figure 15 (below) clarifies the logic of interval names a bit:




FIGURE 15  C Major Scale with Intervals Named




     For reasons that will become clearer as you get better acquainted with intervals and scales and chords, all of the intervals are named with reference to the first note (the tonic note) of the major scale. For example, major second refers to the second note of the major scale, if you start from the tonic note.


     The major scale has only eight notes. That’s why none of the intervals has a name higher than “seventh,” even though there are 12 different intervals.


     (The intervals are not named after the notes of the chromatic scale because the chromatic scale by itself has no use as a “musical” scale.)


     Here’s how each interval gets its name:

   

        Major Second and Minor Second: Both named for the second note of the major scale. The major second is an interval of a whole tone. The minor second is an interval of a semitone.

   

        Major Third and Minor Third: Both named for the third note of the major scale. The major third is an interval of four semitones. The minor third is a semitone less, at three semitones.  


 

Minor Confusion

 

Yet Another Potential Point of Confusion: The term “minor,” when referring to intervals (such as “minor third”), has a different meaning from the term “minor” when referring to keys, (such as “key of D minor”). Chapter 5 discusses keys.


If you confuse the meanings of “minor interval” and “minor key,” you’re apt to get lost.


If you were to get lost, Marshal Puma would probably conscript Deputy Fester and Doc Yada-Yadams to saddle up and fetch you back. Deputy Fester never learned to ride so good and nobody can figure out how he got to be a deputy. As for Doc, he’s three-fifths drunk, 80% of the time and can’t stay on his horse unless somebody does up his seat belt for him. Neither Fester nor Doc would be much good in a search party. So, if you steer clear of any confusion about minor intervals and the minor keys, you’ll stay found.


 

        Perfect Fourth: Named for the fourth note of the major scale. It’s an interval of five semitones. It’s called “perfect” because, compared with the augmented fourth, it sounds a lot more, um ... “perfect.” At least in the context of a chord or a tune.

   

        Augmented Fourth: A wild, unruly interval, it’s also named for the fourth note of the major scale. However, the augmented fourth overshoots the perfect fourth by a semitone, for a total of six semitones. This interval has several other names. It’s often called the tritone because it spans three whole tones (six semitones). It’s also known as the diminished fifth, because it’s a half-tone short of being a “perfect” fifth. In the Middle Ages, they called it diabolus in musica—the “devil in music.” Somebody had a sense of humour way back then. Or ... maybe they believed it was the musical devil hisself.

   

        Perfect Fifth: Named for the fifth note of the major scale. It’s an interval of seven semitones. It’s called “perfect” because, compared with the diminished fifth, it sounds a lot more “perfect” in the context of a chord or a tune. (But, as you’ll see, “perfect” doesn’t necessarily mean “interesting.” Just like people.)

 

        Major Sixth and Minor Sixth: Named for the sixth note of the major scale. The major sixth is an interval of nine semitones. The minor sixth, one less at eight semitones.

   

        Major Seventh and Minor Seventh: Named for the seventh note of the major scale. The major seventh is an interval of eleven semitones. The minor seventh is one less, at ten semitones.


 

More Minor Confusion

 

Yet Another, Another Potential Point of Confusion: Here we go again. As you’ve learned, there’s a difference between minor intervals and minor keys.


Well, there’s also a difference between minor intervals and minor chords, such as, for example, the chord “D minor seventh,” which is neither an interval nor a key.


Chapter 6 discusses chords in harrowing detail. For now, just be aware that, if you confuse the meanings of

 

        minor interval,

 

        minor chord, and

 

        minor key,


you could get lost.


You don’t want to get lost right now, because Marshal Puma’s in no mood for organizing search parties. She just found out that Ex-Marshal McDillon and Doc and Deputy Fester have all been partying on Doc’s moonshine in a gully south of Dodge with a bunch of mid-west farmers’ daughters from the Beach Boys song, “California Girls,” who really make them feel alright. Looks like it’s all over between Marshal Puma and Ex-Marshal McDillon.



4.2.3

PERFECT FIFTHS AND SCALE CONSTRUCTION: MONTY PYTHAGOR’S METHOD

 

You may wonder who first figured out the relationship between lovely-sounding overtones, simple frequency ratios, and their application to scale building.


     People usually credit the Greek philosopher, mathematician, and comedian, Monty Pythagor. As you know, Mr. Pythagor also formulated the Pythagorean Theorem about the square hide of the hippopotamus and the sum of the other square hides, which apparently revolutionized the footwear industry.


     Mr. Pythagor (582 BC - 496 BC) may have figured out the mathematics of overtones and scales 2,500 years ago but he certainly was not the first to discover musically pleasing scales. As discussed in Chapter 1, Neanderthals had bone flutes with diatonic scale notes tens of thousands of years ago.


     As for Mr. Pythagor, it seems he realized that if you kept adding tones in consecutive frequency ratios of 3:2 (perfect fifths), you would get a pleasing-sounding musical scale. Next time you’re near a keyboard, try this:

 

        Play the note:

 

                 C

 

        Now play the perfect fifth (seven semitones) above, which is G:

 

                 C        G

 

        Next, play the perfect fifth (seven semitones) above G, which happens to be D, like this:

 

                            G        D

 

        Next, play the perfect fifth above D, which is A:

 

                                        D        A

 

        Then the perfect fifth above A, which is E:

 

                                                    A        E

 

        Then the perfect fifth above E, which is B:

 

                                                                E        B


     So far, you’ve played the following sequence of six notes:


C   G   D   A   E   B


     The highest note, B, is almost three octaves above the C you started with.


     The next step is to play all six notes in the same octave, and in scale order. Then add another C to complete the scale. Now you have the following seven-note scale:


    
 

     There you go. That’s almost the diatonic major scale.


     You can construct a good many of the world’s popular musical scales simply by using notes derived from consecutive frequency jumps in the ratio of 3:2, the ratio of the perfect fifth interval.


     And, as discussed earlier, when you plunk a bunch of these notes into the same octave, you end up with other simple frequency ratios within the scale as well, such as 2:1 (octave), 4:3 (perfect fourth), 5:4 (major third), and so on.


     So, since Mr. Pythagor figured out the principle of creating scales derived from simple frequency ratios, such scales are called Pythagorean scales. The “do-re-mi” major diatonic scale is a Pythagorean scale, even though it’s not perfectly based on consecutive intervals in ratios of 3:2.


     “Not perfectly” means something goes awry. Here’s how:


     So far, you've seen that if you use the strict Pythagorean method, you get these six different notes (the octave note is repeated):


C   D   E   G   A   B   C


     It’s almost the major diatonic scale. But one note’s missing, namely F.


     So, why not try to get that last note by playing the next note, a fifth interval (seven semitones) up from B, which was the last note you played in the series?


     Try it.


     What’s the note you get?


     Alas, it’s F♯, not plain old F.


     Worse, the fifth above F♯ is C♯, not C.


     Dang.


     Worse still, suppose you go away from the piano and instead decide to derive the series of notes using a calculator. You start with the frequency 261.6 (Middle C) and use your calculator to derive the series of fifth intervals as exact ratios of 3:2. Then you compare your list of calculated frequencies with the actual frequencies of the corresponding piano notes (available on Roedy Black’s Musical Instruments Poster).


     What you discover is that all the theoretical notes you calculated are slightly but noticeably sharper than the notes on the piano!


     Dang again.


     In any case, the fact that you can almost get a complete major diatonic scale simply by using notes derived from consecutive overtone frequencies with the single simple frequency ratio 3:2 (the perfect fifth) illustrates the central role of simple frequency ratios in scale building.



4.2.4

THE PYTHAGOREAN COMMA


Suppose you were to start with the frequency for Middle C and just keep on going, up and up in leaps of perfect fifth intervals, until you eventually reach the note C again, in a much higher octave.


     The first question is, would you ever get to C again, somewhere over the rainbow, way up high?


     Yes, indeed. Especially in Kansas.


     It takes 12 leaps of perfect fifths to get to another C. You end up seven octaves above the C that you started with.


     If you start from Middle C and use a calculator to multiply each successive frequency by a ratio of 3:2 (the simple frequency ratio of the perfect fifth interval), you get the data in Table 12. (It’s theoretical, because the last note is well above the upper limit of human hearing. Way over the rainbow.)




TABLE 12  Consecutive Perfect Fifth Intervals Going Up Seven Octaves


Note

Frequency

(Hz)

Middle C

G

D

A

E

B

F♯

C♯

G♯

D♯

A♯

F

C, seven octaves up from Middle C
  

261.6

392.4

588.6

882.9

1,324.4

1,986.5

2,979.8

4,469.7

6,704.5

10,056.8

15,085.2

22,627.8

33,941.6


  

     Now, just for fun (are you having fun?), try getting to that same C, seven octaves above Middle C, except do your leaps in octaves, instead of perfect fifths.


     Start with Middle C at 261.6 Hz and keep doubling the frequency to preserve the 2:1 simple frequency ratio that defines an octave interval. Table 13 shows what you get.




TABLE 13  Consecutive Octave Intervals, Going Up Seven Octaves

 

Note

Frequency

(Hz)

Middle C

C , one octave up

C, two octaves up

C, three octaves up

C, four octaves up

C, five octaves up

C, six octaves up

C, seven octaves up from Middle C
  

261.6

523.2

1,046.4

2,092.8

4,185.6

8.371.2

16,742.4

33.484.8


  

     Have a look at the last frequency in Table 12 and compare it with the last frequency in Table 13.


     They’re both supposed to be the note C, seven octaves above Middle C, right? So the two frequencies are supposed to be exactly the same, aren’t they?


     But they ain’t.


     The ratio between them, 33,941.6 Hz : 33,484.8 Hz, boils down to a ratio of 1.0136:1, instead of 1:1.


     Dang, for the third time.


     That ratio of 1.0136:1 is called the Pythagorean comma. (In music, a tiny interval is called a comma.)


     The Pythagorean comma caused all sorts of havoc with instrument tuning for more than 2,000 years after Monty Pythagor died of laughter, without telling anybody how to fudge the Pythagorean comma and stay in tune.


     (Chapter 5 discusses some clever jiggery-pokery, called equal temperament, that gets around the Pythagorean comma and cures all problems with scales forever. Well, sort of.)

 


4.2.5

WHY PYTHAGOREAN SCALES EMERGED INDEPENDENTLY ON SEVERAL CONTINENTS


As discussed in Chapter 3, the human brain has the ability to automatically analyse a tone’s constituent harmonics and identify the soundmaker. That means the brain has the ability to understand (and appreciate) simple ratios of frequencies, whatever form they take—overtones of a single tone, or scales consisting of notes in simple-frequency relationships.


     So, whenever humans stumble upon a way of generating a series of notes in simple-frequency relationships, they find the notes pleasing and make music. Homo neanderthalensis knew how to do this, and they weren’t even of our species, Homo sapiens.


     The harmonic series is a phenomenon of nature that anybody anywhere can generate with nothing more than a string or a piece of catgut or sinew attached via some sort of bridge to a resonator. Easy to make. Pleasing, You get simple-frequency-ratio discrete notes.


     It’s no wonder, then, that Pythagorean-type scales, especially pentatonic scales (discussed in Chapter 5), have emerged independently in the musical cultures of all the major civilizations, from Africa to Europe to Asia. Humans everywhere prefer music made with tones in relationships of simple frequency ratios. Even a 22-tone scale used in India shows an underlying Pythagorean structure, no doubt derived from the harmonic series.


 

4.2.6

CONSONANCE AND DISSONANCE


Some intervals sound stable, balanced, at rest, when you play the two notes either together or successively. That’s called consonance.


     Others sound unstable, unbalanced, restless. That’s dissonance (Table 14).




TABLE 14  Consonant and Dissonant Intervals


Interval

Number of Semitones

Example

Consonant/

 Dissonant

Minor Second

Major Second

Minor Third

Major Third

Perfect Fourth

Augmented Fourth

Perfect Fifth

Minor Sixth

Major Sixth

Minor Seventh

Major Seventh

Octave
  

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

     C – C♯

     C – D

     C – E♭

     C – E

     C – F

     C – F♯

     C – G

     C – A♭

     C – A

     C – B♭

     C – B

     C – C

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant



     Pick an interval, any interval. Play the two notes of the interval simultaneously on a guitar or keyboard, the way you would play a chord. Or successively, the way you would play a tune. Go through the list yourself and try out all the intervals.


     Consonance vs dissonance goes straight to the heart of what helps make music exciting and emotional (a good amount of dissonance), or predictable and dull (too much consonance). In music, “dissonant” does not mean “grating” or “harsh.” Rather, it refers to the sense you get of tonal unrest, the seeking of tonal resolution which imparts motion to melody and harmony.


     Later on, you’ll find that chords, because they’re comprised of two or more intervals (three or more notes), also have consonant or dissonant characteristics, depending on the intervals within the chord.


     The notes of a tune (melody) against the backdrop of a chord progression produce consonant or dissonant sounds, too.


 

Happy Thirds and Sad Thirds: Great Country Hits of Auctioneers and Chickadees

 

If you live near the sea, you may hear foghorns every so often. What’s that interval, the descending


                       Dah


                                        Dah ?


It’s a descending major third. People just love that major third. It’s also the cheerful “ding-dong” of your doorbell.


And it’s the main interval the auctioneer uses as he or she disposes of the family farm. In 1956, Leroy Van Dyke and Buddy Black wrote a country classic called “The Auctioneer,” which highlights the auctioneer’s major third sing-song patter. Gordon Lightfoot recorded a fine version of this tune on his 1980 album Dream Street Rose.


The minor third, on the other hand, has a decidedly sad sound. It’s the chief interval in the children’s chant, “Ring Around the Rosie” (the interval on the word, “ros - ie”), also known as “Nyah-Nyah-Nyah-Nyah Nyaaaaah Nyah.”


The male chickadee uses a sliding descending minor third during mating season. The call goes from A down to F♯, or B♭ down to G. Women chickadees love that sad tune. The slide into the second note of the interval is characteristic of sad country songs. Male chickadees may have been the first true country singers.



4.2.7

DISSONANCE: FREAKY FREQUENCY RATIOS


What causes intervals (and, by extension, chords) to sound consonant or dissonant?


     Have a look at the ratios of frequencies that correspond to consonant vs dissonant intervals (Table 15).




TABLE 15  Frequency Ratios of the Intervals


Interval

Semi-

tones

Example

Freq.

Ratio

Consonant/

 Dissonant

Unison

Minor Second

Major Second

Minor Third

Major Third

Perfect Fourth

Augmented Fourth

Perfect Fifth

Minor Sixth

Major Sixth

Minor Seventh

Major Seventh

Octave
  

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

     C

     C – C♯

     C – D

     C – E♭

     C – E

     C – F

     C – F♯

     C – G

     C – A♭

     C – A

     C – B♭

     C – B

     C – C

1:1

16 : 15

9 : 8

6 : 5

5 : 4

4 : 3

45 : 32

3 : 2

8 : 5

5 : 3

9 : 5

15 : 8

2 : 1

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant



     Some intervals have simple frequency ratios, such as the major third (ratio of 5:4). Others have complex ratios, especially the augmented fourth (ratio of 45:32), the freakiest of them all.


     In general, you get consonant intervals from the simplest frequency ratios, the ones with small numbers. You get dissonant intervals from complex frequency ratios, the ones with larger numbers.


     Degree of perceived consonance vs dissonance is a function of pitch relationships among tones. Also, as discussed a bit later (Chapter 6), consonant intervals have overtones in common, or overlapping. Dissonant intervals tend not to.


     Infants show clear preferences for consonant intervals, based on simple frequency ratios, such as fourths and fifths, and show a distinct aversion to dissonant intervals, such as the tritone. This indicates such preferences are wired in the brain at birth. It also underscores the futility of trying to build audiences for unpalatably dissonant music.


     In an experiment comparing consonant-dissonant preferences of humans and cottontop tamarins, the monkeys showed no clear preference for consonant intervals over dissonant intervals. In the same experiment, humans showed a clear preference for consonant intervals, supporting the theory that music is a species-specific adaptation in humans only.


 

4.2.8

INTERVALS WITHIN SCALES


So far, the discussion of intervals has focussed on intervals in which the first of the two notes is the lowest note of the scale, the tonic.


     Can an interval start on any note?


     Sure. You can start on the note A, the sixth note of the C major scale. If you then go up three semitones to C, that’s an interval of a minor third. Any span of three consecutive semitones is a minor third interval, no matter where it occurs in a scale. Consider, for example, the intervals within this scale (Figure 16):

   



FIGURE 16  C Major Scale






 

     Table 16 below shows intervals drawn exclusively from the C major scale—no chromatic notes.

   



TABLE 16  Intervals Occurring Naturally in the Major Scale

 

Interval

Semi-

tones

Example

Freq.

Ratio

Consonant/

 Dissonant

Minor Second

Major Second

Minor Third

Major Third

Perfect Fourth

Augmented Fourth

Perfect Fifth

Minor Sixth

Major Sixth

Minor Seventh

Major Seventh

Octave
  

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

     B – C

     C – D

     A – C

     C – E

     C – F

     F – B

     C – G

     E – C

     C – A

     D – C

     C – B

     CC

16 : 15

9 : 8

6 : 5

5 : 4

4 : 3

45 : 32

3 : 2

8 : 5

5 : 3

9 : 5

15 : 8

2 : 1

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Consonant

 Dissonant

 Dissonant

 Consonant


  

     Of the 12 different intervals, 11 anchor naturally to the tonal centre (the note C) at one end of the scale or the other.


     And the only one that doesn’t? It’s that diabolical diabolus in musica, the very devil hisself, the augmented fourth. The one with the weirdest frequency ratio, 45:32.


     The same interval can occur in several places in one scale. For example, in the C major scale ...

 

        The minor second (one semitone) occurs in two places: E – F, and B – C.

 

        The perfect fifth (seven semitones) occurs in four places: C – G, D – A, E – B, and F – C.



4.2.9

COMPLEMENTARY INTERVALS


Any two intervals that add up to an octave (which consists of 12 semitones) are called complementary intervals (Table 17).




TABLE 17  The Complementary Intervals

Minor 2nd (1 semitone)


Major 2nd (2 semitones)


Minor 3rd (3 semitones)


Major 3rd (4 semitones)


Perfect 4th (5 semitones)
  

+  Major 7th (11 semitones)


+  Minor 7th (10 semitones)


+  Major 6th (9 semitones)


+  Minor 6th (8 semitones)


+  Perfect 5th (7 semitones)

=  Octave


=  Octave


=  Octave


=  Octave


=  Octave



     A few “rules” of complementary intervals:

 

        The complement of any minor interval is a major interval. And vice-versa.

 

        The only two “perfect” intervals—perfect fourth and perfect fifth— complement each other (wouldn’t you know it).

 

        There’s no complement for the diabolical tritone (6 semitones).


     Complementary intervals are important in understanding chord changes or chord progressions, the subject of Chapter 6.



4.2.10

WHY INTERVALS ARE THE REAL MUSICAL UNITS OF MELODIES AND CHORDS


A tone in isolation is just a tone. Only when two tones are sounded, either together or in sequence, does a relationship form. Your brain analyses that relationship. As each tone sounds in succession, your brain tries to anticipate the new tone that might come next in the context of the ones you’ve just heard.


     If you play a progression of chords without a tune, does your brain interpret that chord progression as “music”?


     No, it doesn’t.


     Hardly ever, anyway. All you hear is formless harmony.


     To hear music, you need a tune. Your brain demands it. You’ll see why in the discussion of harmony, chords, and chord progressions (Chapter 6).


     On the other hand, if you play or sing a tune by itself, with no chords, does your brain interpret that tune as “music”?


     Yes, it does.


     For example, most people sing national anthems without instrumental accompaniment. Great national anthems, such as those of France, Britain, America, Russia, and South Africa, have stood the test of time. These anthems have such powerful tunes that they sound beautiful with or without chords.


 

“O’er the Land of the Fa-ree-eee- eee-eee-uh”

 

You’ve probably heard pop stars perform over-the-top versions of your national anthem. Usually, such renditions ruin the anthem.


When some singer with no compositional know-how deviates from the classic tune of a great national anthem in an effort to “make it his (or her) own,” he or she is attempting to re-compose the tune on the fly, incompetently improvising. It’s the musical equivalent of painting a moustache on the Mona Lisa.


That said, occasionally a genuine musical genius comes along and succeeds in rendering a national anthem in an awe-inspiring, yet original way. Jimi Hendrix did it at the Woodstock music festival in 1969. But that’s rare.



     Most of the time, music consists of a tune with instrumental accompaniment. The tune seems to float or bounce along on top of the chords, which provide depth and color. With or without instrumental accompaniment, the tune or melody actually consists of a succession of intervals, not a succession of notes.


     The first six notes of “The Star Spangled Banner”—“O-oh say can you see”—form five successive intervals. Here they are (Table 18):




TABLE 18  First Five Intervals of “The Star Spangled Banner”


O – oh


oh – say


say – can


can – you


you – see

   Minor third, moving down (three semitones)


   Major third, moving down (four semitones)


   Major third, moving up (four semitones)


   Minor third, moving up (three semitones)


   Perfect fourth, moving up (five semitones)
  


  

     Whether a tune is interesting or boring depends on its arrangement of intervals, not individual notes. Intervals come from scales. And scales come from overtones.


     Not only that, but, as you’ll soon see, intervals determine how chords sound, and whether a chord progression imbues a piece of music with purpose and feeling ... or fails to.


     Only when you get to intervals does the possibility of music even arise.


     Here’s a little flow diagram that summarizes these relationships (Figure 17). The arrows mean “give rise to”:

   



FIGURE 17  Pathway to Tunes and Chords




 

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You are reading the FREE SAMPLE Chapters 1 through 6 of the acclaimed 12-Chapter book, How Music REALLY Works!, 2nd Edition. Here's what's in Chapters 7 through 12. 

 

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 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 TABLE OF
 CONTENTS

  

 PART I

 The Big Picture    Introduction

   1. W-5 of Music
  
2. Pop Music
   
    Industry

  
 PART II
 Essential
 Building Blocks
 of Music
   3.
Tones/Overtones
   4. Scales/Intervals
   5. Keys/Modes
 
 PART III
 How to Create
 Emotionally
 Powerful Music
 and Lyrics
   6.
Chords/
  
      Progressions

   7. Pulse/Meter/
  
      Tempo/Rhythm

   8. Phrase/Form
   9. Melody
 10. Lyrics
 11. Repertoire/
     
  Performance

  

 PART IV
 Making a
 Living In Music
 12.
Business of
   
     Music

 
 Appendixes

   

 Notes

   

 References

  

 Index
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Top

 

 

 

 

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